بانک, بانکداری, اقتصاد و مدیریت

نسبتهای مالی در بانک و موسسات مالی


Income Statement
Return on Average Assets

USBR calculates Return on Assets (ROA) by dividing net operating income by total assets.

Return on Average Assets = ( Net Operating Income/ Total Assets )

Return on Equity

Return on Equity = ( Net Income/Stockholder Equity )

Return on Equity is determined by dividing net income (minus preferred dividends) by average common stockholders equity to get the return on equity.

Rate Paid on Funds

The Rate Paid on Funds is determined by dividing total interest expense by total earning assets. The formula is as follows:

Rate Paid on Funds = Total Interest Expense / Total Earning Assets

This indicates what percentage or rate of interest is paid from assets.

Net Interest Margin

Net Interest Margin

Net interest margin is computed by dividing net interest income by total earning assets.

Net Interest Margin = Net Interest income/ Earning Assets

Provision for Loan Losses

This important figure is a reserve account to cover unexpected defaults on loans by borrowers. These are generally referred to as nonperforming loans.

Reserve as a percentage of loans: ( Reserve/ Total loans )

Chargeoffs as percentage of loans: (Charge-offs/ Total Loans )

The higher the nonperforming loan and charge-off percentages, the higher the provision for loan losses should probably be. Consequently, this would reduce net income and earnings per share.

Long Term Debt to Total Liabilities and Equity

The higher this figure, the more difficult it would be for a bank to borrow more funds.This figure is determined as follows:

Long Term Debt to Total Liabilities and Equity = ( Long Term Debt / Total Liabilities plus Equity )

Loans to Assets

The loans to assets ratio measures the total loans outstanding as a percentage of total assets. The higher this ratio indicates a bank is loaned up and its liquidity is low. The higher the ratio, the more risky a bank may be to higher defaults.

This figure is determined as follows:

Loans to Assets = ( Loans / Total Assets )


Equity to Assets

Equity to total assets is a common measure used to analyze capital adequancy of a bank. This figure is determined as follows:

Equity to Assets = ( Stockholders Equity / Average Total Assets )

Equity to Loans

Equity to Loans reflects the degree of equity coverage to outstanding loans. This figure is determined as follows:

Equity to Loans = ( Average Common Equity / Average Total Assets )

Tier I Capital

Tier I

Banks must maintain a ratio which is within the guidelines set by the FDIC guidelines. This figure is determined as follows:

Tier 1 Capital = ( Stockholder Equity/ Risk-Adjusted Assets )

Total Capital
Total Capital includes Tier I and the reserve for loan losses ( up to 1.25 % of Risk Adjusted Capital) plus subordinated notes (to 50 percent of Tier I capital). This figure is also set by FDIC guidelines.




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